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Applicative Functors and data validation, part II

In the first part of this series, we went through a basic introduction to Functor and Applicative Functor. In this second part, we will go through an exercise to show how to use them to perform input data validation.

Create the types:

  • Address
  • Body
  • Email

Create the functions:

  • makeAddress that takes a String and validates that it contains a '@'. It returns an Address value wrapped in a Just if it is valid or Nothing otherwise.
  • makeBody that takes a String and validates that it is not empty. It returns a Body value wrapped in a Just if it is valid or Nothing otherwise.
  • makeEmail that takes as arguments three strings, fromAddress, toAddress, and body. It returns an email instance wrapped in Just if fromAddress, toAddress and body are valid, Nothing otherwise.


type FromAddress = Address
type ToAddress = Address

data Address = Address String
data Body      = Body    String
data Email     = Email   FromAddress ToAddress Body

FromAddress and ToAddress are type aliases to the Address type so that it’s easier to identify which one is which in the Email data constructor.

It is worth noting that the data constructors for our types Address, Body and Email are just functions with one, one and three arguments respectively.

For instance the Email constructor has the following type signature:

Email :: Address -> Address -> Body -> Email


makeAddress :: String -> Maybe Address
makeAddress address = fmap Address (validateContains '@' address)

makeBody :: String -> Maybe Body
makeBody body = fmap Body (validateNonEmpty body)

makeEmail :: String -> String -> String -> Maybe Email
makeEmail from to body = 
  case makeAddress from of
    Nothing          -> Nothing
    Just fromAddress ->
      case makeAddress to of
        Nothing        -> Nothing
        Just toAddress ->
          case makeBody body of
            Nothing   -> Nothing
            Just body ->
              Just (Email fromAddress toAddress body)

Auxiliary functions to validate input.

validateNonEmpty :: String -> Maybe String
validateNonEmpty [] = Nothing
validateNonEmpty xs = Just xs

validateContains :: Char -> String -> Maybe String
validateContains x xs 
    | elem x xs = Just xs
    | otherwise = Nothing

makeAddress and makeBody successfully leveraged the functoriality of Maybe. We were able to apply the validation function to obtain a Maybe String to then fmap it to Maybe Address and Maybe Body respectively.

On the other hand, the makeEmail implementation is much more involved and cumbersome. Let's see why we had to do the break down of Maybe values manually.

If we try to fmap the Email constructor as we did with Address and Body ,for makeAddress and makeBody, the expression has the following type:

fmap Email (makeAddress "carlos@codurance.com") :: Maybe (Address -> Body -> Person)

Examining the type of the expression, we can see that we have partially applied the Email constructor, successfully applying it to the Address value inside the Maybe structure. However, it is still waiting for two more arguments in order to produce the desired result type for makeEmail, Maybe Email.

If we now try to apply the second argument by applying fmap again we get a type error, as fmap does not take a function embedded in a structure, but a function on its own.

fromAddress :: Maybe Address
fromAddress = makeAddress "carlos@codurance.com"

toAddress :: Maybe Address
toAddress = makeAddress "user@email.com"

emailWithFromApplied :: Maybe (Address -> Body -> Email)
emailWithFromApplied = fmap Email fromAddress

-- does not compile
emailWithFromAndToApplied :: Maybe (Body -> Email)
emailWithFromAndToApplied = fmap emailWithFromApplied toAddress

The problem here is that the function that we are passing to fmap in the case of emailWithFromAndToApplied is wrapped in a Maybe structure and fmap does not accept a function wrapped in a structure.

Applicatives to the rescue! They let us do exactly what we need, apply a function inside a structure to a value inside a structure of the same type.

Let's implement emailWithFromAndToApplied using <*>:

emailWithFromAndToApplied :: Maybe (Body -> Email)
emailWithFromAndToApplied = emailWithFromApplied <*> toAddress

Now we have successfully applied the second argument to the Email constructor, but there is still one more to go, the Body argument, so let's apply it using <*> once again:

body :: Maybe Body
body = makeBody "Haskell rocks."

emailFullyApplied :: Maybe Email
emailFullyApplied = emailWithFromAndToApplied <*> body

We just implemented the function emailFullyApplied by leveraging the power of Functor and Applicative. Let's break down what we just did:

  1. We used Functor to apply the first argument of the Email constructor under the Maybe structure that makeAddress provides. This resulted in the Email constructor been partially applied to its first argument, fromAddress. The rest of the function, Address -> Body -> Email, is now embedded or wrapped inside a Maybe structure.
  2. Once we got the function embedded in the Maybe structure, we used Applicative to be able to apply it to its second argument, toAddress, obtaining the Email constructor now applied to its two first arguments.
  3. To finish up the function application, we used Applicative once again to apply the last argument of the Email constructor, body, obtaining the desired result.

The implementation did not look as bad as the first attempt, but just because we broke it down into several intermediate results. If we were to inline the implementation of the function emailFullyApplied we would get:

emailFullyApplied :: Maybe Email
emailFullyApplied = ((fmap Email (makeAddress "carlos@codurance.com")) <*> makeAddress "user@email.com") <*> makeBody "Haskell rocks"

The Applicative package in Haskell also provides an infix operator <$> for fmap that makes the implementation a bit nicer, by getting rid of the parenthesis. It behaves as fmap, but it is placed between its two arguments:

emailFullyApplied :: Maybe Email
emailFullyApplied =
  Email <$> makeAddress "carlos@codurance.com"
        <*> makeAddress "user@email.com"
        <*> makeBody "Haskell rocks"

We can go back to the original makeEmail function by extracting the hardcoded values as parameters:

makeEmail :: String -> String -> String -> Maybe Email
makeEmail from to body =
  Email <$> makeAddress from
        <*> makeAddress to
        <*> makeBody body

It is worth noting that this implementation of makeEmail, apart from being far nicer than the original one, is much easier to extend if we were to add more arguments or fields to the Email constructor.

Map a function using <$> to partially apply it and to embed it inside a structure, then apply it to the rest of it arguments using <*>

This pattern is so common in Haskell that the Applicative package provides several utility functions, liftA2, liftA3... The liftAn functions will take a function of n arguments and will apply it to all its arguments wrapped in a structure f.

For instance, liftA3, takes a function of three arguments and three values wrapped in a structure f and it applies the function to the values as we did in the makeEmail implementation:

liftA3 :: Applicative f => (a -> b -> c -> d) -> f a -> f b -> f c -> f d`

Substituting our types:

liftA3 :: Applicative f =>
    (a  -> b -> c -> d)
    -> f a
    -> f b
    -> f c
    -> f d

liftA3 ::
    (Address -> Address -> Body -> Email)
    -> Maybe Address
    -> Maybe Address
    -> Maybe Body
    -> Maybe Email

Rewriting makeEmail to make use of liftA3:

makeEmail :: String -> String -> String -> Maybe Email
makeEmail from to body =
   liftA3 Email (makeAddress from)
                (makeAddress to)
                (makeBody body)

Either & Validation

We just saw how to use the Maybe Functor and Applicative Functor to validate input data, however, Maybe cannot offer any information about the error.

We will see how we can signal errors and also accumulate all the errors occurred during the validation process using the Validation data type. This is a more practical scenario for real-life applications, as it is often required to return some information about the errors.

The data type Validation is very similar to Either. You may be familiar with Either as it is quite a common type in most functional languages.

data Either     a   b = Left    a   | Right   b
data Validation err a = Failure err | Success a

The definition of both types shows that Either and Validation are indeed identical, they just have different names for their type and data constructors.

Either is a general purpose data type. Validation is a variation of Either exclusively for validation purposes that accumulates all the errors. This difference is not visible in the definitions of the data types, but it is in their Applicative instances.

We will be using the Validation package Haskell, which defines the AccValidation data type that accumulates errors in a given type.

  • The Applicative instance for Either just short-circuits as soon as there is an error, as Maybe does, but it can carry with it information about the actual error.
  • On the other hand, the Applicative instance for AccValidation accumulates all the errors in a given type, usually List.

AccValidation accumulates all the errors using the Semigroup typeclass. A semigroup is an abstraction that combines two arguments of the same type into a single one, as Monoid does, but it does not have an identity element. We are going to show how to combine all the errors using AccValidation and List. List has both a Monoid instance and a Semigroup instance.

The AccValidation data type and its Applicative instance are defined as follows:

data AccValidation err a = AccFailure err | AccSuccess a 

Semigroup err => Applicative (AccValidation err)

Let's see how we can use it in code.

First, we need to define an Error data type for our implementation:

data Error = EmptyBody | AddressMustContain String deriving (Eq, Show)

And three new functions validateAddress, validateBody and validateEmail that return information about the error in case there is one:

validateAddress :: String -> AccValidation [Error] Address
validateAddress address = maybeToValidation error (makeAddress address)
  where error = AddressMustContain "@"

validateBody :: String -> AccValidation [Error] Body
validateBody body = maybeToValidation EmptyBody (makeBody body)

validateEmail :: String -> String -> String -> AccValidation [Error] Email
validateEmail from to body =
  Email <$> validateAddress from
        <*> validateAddress to
        <*> validateBody body

Auxiliary function to convert Maybe to AccValidation:

maybeToValidation :: Error -> Maybe a -> AccValidation [Error] a
maybeToValidation error Nothing = AccFailure [error]
maybeToValidation _    (Just x) = AccSuccess x

Using liftA3:

validateEmail :: String -> String -> String -> AccValidation [Error] Email
validateEmail from to body =
  liftA3 Email (validateAddress from)
               (validateAddress to)
               (validateBody body)

Note how the implementation of validateEmail is identical to the one we defined earlier for makeEmail. The type signature has changed, as it now returns an AccValidation instead of a Maybe, but given that both types are Applicatives Functors we don’t need to change the implementation to change the behaviour.

To see how errors accumulate, let's write the following two functions that feed sample data to validateEmail:

allWrong :: AccValidation [Error] Email
allWrong = validateEmail "wrong" "alsoWrong" ""

allGood :: AccValidation [Error] Email
allGood = validateEmail "carlos@codurance.com" "info@codurance.com" "Haskell rocks"

Evaluating both expresions in the REPL:

Prelude> print allWrong
AccFailure [AddressMustContain "@",AddressMustContain "@",EmptyBody]
Prelude> print allGood
AccSuccess (Email (Address "carlos@codurance.com") (Address "info@codurance.com") (Body "Haskell rocks"))


To recap:

  • Use Maybe when you don't need to carry any information about the error.
  • Use Either when you need to carry information about a single possible error or the first error when more than one is possible.
  • Use Validation when you need to carry information about multiple errors.

As a further observation, note how the type signatures for $, the function application operator, <$>, for fmap, and <*>, for apply, are very similar. They all play around adding an extra layer of structure to the arguments, a function and a value, and the return type. They all are function application.

$    ::   (a -> b) ->   a ->   b
<$>  ::   (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
<*>  :: f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b

About the author

Carlos is a developer who is constantly looking for new ways to master the art of crafting software. He firmly believes in the software craftsmanship principles and bases his journey towards mastery on them.

He has been working professionally as an Android developer for more than 3 years. His current focus is on mastering a new set of skills that will let him continue to grow and make progress in his career.

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